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Bosnia-Herzegovina used to be part of a country in the Balkans called Yugoslavia which was made up of six different regions, including Serbia and Croatia. From 1991, Yugoslavia began to disintegrate. The majority of people living in Bosnia were ethnic Christian Bosnians, but there were also Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Croats who were both Christian. In addition there were also Bosnian Muslims.

Bosnia-Herzegovina declared independence in 1992. However, the Bosnian Serb population saw their future as being joined with Serbia, now an independent neighbouring state. A civil war began during which the Serbs isolated Bosnian Muslims and started exterminating them.

One such case occurred is the town of Srebrenica, where Bosnian Serb troops were determined to clear the town of Bosnian Muslims. They murdered at least 7,500 men and boys over 13 and deported the rest of the population. They established concentration camps where many died from starvation and inhumane treatment. There were many instances of women being raped.

During the war there were instances of brutality on each side.