These people had a blue stamp in their registration cards, meaning that they were exempt from deportation. They were Jews who had British or American citizenship. The Nazis saw these Jews as ‘exchange Jews’, and they would attempt to exchange each one of them for five to 10 Germans; especially military prisoners of war. In fact, no exchanges ever occurred.
One exchange Jew was Eve, daughter of Hans and Rita Oppenheimer. The family was German–Jewish. Eve’s father had moved to Holland from Germany to escape Nazi persecution. Eve was born in June 1936 during a visit to England by her mother and brothers, Paul and Rudi; she therefore had British nationality. The mother, brothers and sister then joined the father in Holland.
However, by the late spring of 1940, they found themselves under the Nazi regime once more. After being interned in the Amsterdam ghetto, they were deported to Westerbork in June 1943, and then on to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany on 1 February 1944.
Westerbork was liberated by the Allies in April 1945. At that time just 876 prisoners remained, of whom 569 were Dutch citizens.