Established by the Nazis on 24 November 1941, Thereinstadt (Terezin in Czech) was situated some 50 kilometres north of Prague in Czechoslovakia.
Theresienstadt was neither a ghetto or a camp, having features of both. It had three main purposes:
- A transit camp for Czech Jews before being deported to Nazi forced labour camps and extermination camps in the east.
- A ghetto in which the Nazis held prisoner Jews from Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia to hide the fact that they were being sent to thir deaths.
- A camp in which the Nazis held Jews deported from across Europe before sending them to the death camps.
Theresienstadt was operable for three and a half years until being liberated by the Soviet Army on 9 May 1945. By September 1942, the ghetto population peaked at 54,004.