Deportations to the ghetto
Wholesale deportations to Lodz began from the rest of Europe in 1941. Jews were taken from Austria, Germany, Bohemia and Moravia, Luxembourg and Warthegau. During 1942, 5,000 Roma from Austria were sent to the ghetto, where they were kept segregated in a small prison block. By the end of 1942, more than 200,000 people had passed through the ghetto, over 43,000 of whom died of cold, disease or starvation.
Deportations from the ghetto
Deportations from Lodz began as early as December 1940, mainly to forced labour camps. Initially the SS used Rumkowski to select and provide Jews for deportations. He would efficiently and effectively administer the selection with lists and instructions being posted for those selected. Later, in order to speed up deportations, the SS used the police to round people up. These round-ups were were often carried out with extreme brutality.
In January 1942 the Nazis began deporting Jews from Lodz to the Chelmno death camp. By September of that year the Nazis using gas vans had murdered about 70,000 and 5,000 Roma. There were no major round-ups or deportations from Lodz between September 1942 to May 1944, as the Nazis then concentrated their energies elsewhere.
Liquidation of the ghetto
The destruction of the Lodz ghetto began in May 1944. By August, nearly 75,000 Jews had been sent to their deaths. Only 7,000 people who had passed through the Lodz Ghetto survived. The remainder had perished at the hands of the Nazis and their accomplices.