The Holocaust (or Shoah) is the term for the murder of around six million Jews by the Nazi regime and their collaborators during the Second World War.
Between 1941 and 1945, the Nazis sought to eliminate the entire Jewish community of Europe. Jews were murdered by death squads or transported to death camps. Six million of the eleven million European Jews perished. The Holocaust mainly occurred in Eastern Europe, in places such as Poland and Ukraine.
The term ‘Holocaust’ can also refer to the orchestrated murder of other groups targeted by the Nazi regime, including Roma, disabled people, Soviet Prisoners of War and civilians, Polish civilians, homosexuals, socialists, communists and trades unionists, Freemasons and Jehovah’s Witnesses.
The Nazis did not act alone. The perpetrators were supported and assisted by collaborators from within the countries that they occupied across Europe during the Second World War.